Home Science James Webb Space Telescope helps researchers uncover early galaxies in ‘new chapter in astronomy’

James Webb Space Telescope helps researchers uncover early galaxies in ‘new chapter in astronomy’

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In what James Webb Space Telescope researchers call “a whole new chapter in astronomy,” the observatory helped locate two early galaxies.

In a tweet, the international team said an unexpectedly bright galaxy could fundamentally change what we know about the first star.

The study – two papers – was published last week in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Researchers discovered the galaxy in images from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) Early Release Science (ERS) program in just four days of analysis.

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Scientists have discovered that galaxies existed about 450 and 350 million years after the Big Bang, but future spectroscopy measurements by Webb may not be enough to confirm these early findings. Helpful.

Two of the most distant galaxies ever observed are captured in the Webb Space Telescope’s picture of the outer region of the giant galaxy cluster Abell 2744. These galaxies are billions of light years away, not inside galaxy clusters. The galaxy labeled (1) existed just 450 million years after the Big Bang. (2) The galaxy existed 350 million years after the big bang. Both are seen very close to the Big Bang, which occurred 13.8 billion years ago. These galaxies are small compared to our own Milky Way, and even the unexpectedly elongated galaxy (1) is only a few percent of its size.
(Credits: Science: NASA, ESA, CSA, Tommaso Treu (UCLA); Image Processing: Zolt G. Levay (STScI))

Rohan Naidu of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology said, “Just days after Webb released its first data, we were astonished to find the most distant starlight that anyone had ever seen. ‘, he told NASA. A more distant GLASS galaxy, called GLASS-z12, is thought to date back 350 million years from the Big Bang.

Naidu led one paper, and Marco Castellano, National Institute of Astrophysics, Rome, Italy, led the other.

The previous record holder is galaxy GN-z11, which existed 400 million years after the Big Bang.

These two galaxies are believed to have existed at 350 & 350. 450 million years after the Big Bang (left to right). Unlike our own Milky Way, these first galaxies were small and compact, shaped like spheres or disks rather than massive spirals.

These two galaxies are believed to have existed at 350 & 350. 450 million years after the Big Bang (left to right). Unlike our own Milky Way, these first galaxies were small and compact, shaped like spheres or disks rather than massive spirals.
(Credits: Science: NASA, ESA, CSA, Tommaso Treu (UCLA); Image Processing: Zolt G. Levay (STScI))

“These early origin distances still need to be confirmed by spectroscopy, but their extreme brightness is a real puzzle and challenges our understanding of galaxy formation,” said Pascal Auch of the University of Geneva. .

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These observations have reportedly brought astronomers closer to a consensus that an unusual number of galaxies in the early universe were much brighter than expected, making it easier for telescopes to spot more early galaxies. It is reported.

After just four days of analysis, the researchers discovered two extremely bright galaxies in the GLASS-JWST images.

After just four days of analysis, the researchers discovered two extremely bright galaxies in the GLASS-JWST images.
(Credits: Science: NASA, ESA, CSA, Tommaso Treu (UCLA); Image Processing: Zolt G. Levay (STScI))

“We nailed something incredibly fascinating,” said Garth Illingworth of the university. Naidu and Oesch team members of Santa Cruz, California, said, “The primordial universe would have been only 1/100 of its present age. 138 In an evolving universe a billion years ago, it’s just a fraction of a second.”

Illingworth also said the galaxy may have been very massive, with many low-mass stars, or it could have been a much lighter galaxy with Group III stars.

NASA said they were the first stars ever to be made entirely of primordial hydrogen and helium, as has long been theorized.

These two unexpectedly bright galaxies could fundamentally change what we know about the first stars.

These two unexpectedly bright galaxies could fundamentally change what we know about the first stars.
(Credits: Science: NASA, ESA, CSA, Tommaso Treu (UCLA); Image Processing: Zolt G. Levay (STScI))

Such extremely hot protostars are not found in the local Universe.

Galaxies are also very small and compact, with spherical or disk-like shapes rather than massive spirals.

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This early discovery of the compact disc was due to Webb’s much sharper image in infrared light.

Follow-up observations will confirm the galactic distance, based on infrared color measurements, and spectroscopic measurements will provide independent verification, they said.

“These observations make your head explode. This is a whole new chapter in astronomy. It’s like an archaeological excavation and suddenly you find a lost city or something you didn’t know. It’s just amazing ” says author Paola Santini. She’s a Castellano-led paper, she said.

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